Input/Output Devices (12)

Thermistors

The Thermistor is a solid state temperature sensing device that acts a bit like an electrical resistor but is temperature sensitive. Thermistors can be used to produce an analogue output voltage with variations in ambient temperature and as such can be referred to as a transducer...

Output Interfacing Circuits

As we saw in the previous input interfacing tutorial, an interface circuit allows one type of circuit to be connected to another type of circuit that may be of a different voltage or current rating. But as well as interfacing input devices such as switches and sensors we can als...

Input Interfacing Circuits

Interfacing is the method of connecting or linking together one device, especially a computer or micro-controller with another allowing us to design or adapt the output and input configurations of the two electronic devices so that they can work together. But interfacing is more...

Summary of Transducers

Below is a summary of transducers and sensors we have looked at in this section along with a list of the main characteristics associated with Transducers, Sensors and Actuators. Input Devices or Sensors Sensors are "Input" devices which convert one type of energy or quantity ...

Sound Transducers

Sound is the generalised name given to "acoustic waves". These acoustic waves have frequencies ranging from just 1Hz up to many tens of thousands of Hertz with the upper limit of human hearing being around the 20 kHz, (20,000Hz) range. The sound that we hear is basically made up...

DC Motors

Electrical DC Motors are continuous actuators that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The DC motor achieves this by producing a continuous angular rotation that can be used to rotate pumps, fans, compressors, wheels, etc. As well as conventional rotary DC motors, ...

Linear Solenoid Actuator

The linear solenoid works on the same basic principal as the electromechanical relay seen in the previous tutorial and just like relays, they can also be switched and controlled using transistors or MOSFET's. A "Linear Solenoid" is an electromagnetic device that converts electric...

Electrical Relay

Thus far we have seen a selection of Input devices that can be used to detect or "sense" a variety of physical variables and signals and are therefore called Sensors. But there are also a variety of electrical and electronic devices which are classed as Output devices used to con...

Light Sensors

A Light Sensor generates an output signal indicating the intensity of light by measuring the radiant energy that exists in a very narrow range of frequencies basically called "light", and which ranges in frequency from "Infra-red" to "Visible" up to "Ultraviolet" light spectrum. ...

Temperature Sensors

These types of temperature sensor vary from simple ON/OFF thermostatic devices which control a domestic hot water heating system to highly sensitive semiconductor types that can control complex process control furnace plants. We remember from our school science classes that the ...

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